Stem cell research has been hailed for the potential to revolutionize the future of medicine with the ability to regenerate damaged and diseased organs . The role of adult stem cells in tissue repair (also called somatic stem cells) is believed to be replacement of damaged and injured tissue. Observed in continually-replenished cells such as blood cells and skin cells, it’s a biologic process naturally happened in the
human body . Within the human body, stem cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding microenvironment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. Several factors are important to regulate stem cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. Ca2+ concentration) and metabolites, like ATP, are also important. The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood.. In Wound Healing , we have to stabilize the factors to provide a suitable Microenvironment for tissues regeneration .